I-El Tajín: Idolobha elilahlekile "lokuduma" kanye nabantu abangaqondakali

Cishe ngo-800 BC, ngaphambi kokuvela kombuso wama-Aztec, umphakathi oseningizimu yeMexico wakha leli dolobha elimangalisayo. Nokho, ukuthi babengobani kuseyimpicabadala. Leli dolobha lahlala lilahlekile amakhulu eminyaka, lifihlwe amahlathi ashisayo, kwaze kwaba yilapho libanjwa ngokoqobo isikhulu sikahulumeni.

I-El Tajín, indawo yokuvubukula emangalisayo esesifundeni saseVeracruz, eMexico, inikeza umbono othakazelisayo ngempucuko yasendulo eyake yachuma endaweni. Ihlonishwa njengeNdawo Yamagugu Omhlaba ye-UNESCO, i-El Tajín ijabulisa izivakashi ngezakhiwo zayo ezihlaba umxhwele, ubuciko obuqoshwe ngokuyinkimbinkimbi, nokubaluleka kwamasiko okujulile. Ngokwesiko nangokomlando, kunezici ezimbalwa ezihehayo zaleli dolobha lasendulo eliphethe ifa abantu abangaqondakali owake wayibiza ngekhaya.

I-El Tajín: Idolobha elilahlekile le "Thunder" kanye nabantu abangaqondakali 1
I-Pyramid of the Niches e-El Tajín, eVeracruz, eMexico - ngekhulu lesi-6 CE. I-BigStock | I-ID yesithombe: 12405452

Umsuka nokuthuthuka kwe-El Tajín

I-El Tajín: Idolobha elilahlekile le "Thunder" kanye nabantu abangaqondakali 2
I-Pyramid of the Niches, El Tajín. I-World History Encyclopedia (CC BY-NC-SA)

I-El Tajín yachuma phakathi kuka-600 no-1200 AD, eyingxenye yesiko le-Classic Veracruz. Kukholakala ukuthi bekuyisikhungo sedolobha esibalulekile, esisebenza njengenhloko-dolobha yempucuko yaseTotonac. Idolobha elaziwa ngezakhiwo zalo ezithuthukisiwe, ukuvezwa kobuciko, kanye nemikhuba yemikhosi, idolobha ladlala indima ebalulekile empilweni yamasiko nenkolo yesifunda.

Isakhiwo sedolobha kanye nezimangaliso zezakhiwo

El Tajin
I-architecture ye-El Tajín ibonisa amasu onjiniyela athuthukisiwe, afana nokuqondanisa okunembayo kwezakhiwo ezinemicimbi yezinkanyezi njengama-solstices nama-equinox. iStock

I-El Tajín idume ngezici zayo ezihlaba umxhwele zezakhiwo, ikakhulukazi i- amapiramidi kanye nezinkundla zebhola. I-Pyramid of the Niches ingenye yezakhiwo ezidume kakhulu, ezihlotshiswe ngama-niches angu-365 aqoshiwe (okukholelwa ukuthi amelela izinsuku zonyaka), okungenzeka ukuthi ayependwe noma aqukethe izinto zobumba nezithombe eziqoshiwe. Ama-acoustics avelele enkundleni yebhola abadide abavubukuli, bekhomba ukuba khona kwemikhosi nemikhuba yenkolo ejulile.

I-El Tajín: Idolobha elilahlekile le "Thunder" kanye nabantu abangaqondakali 3
Abantu baseTotonac babenza umdlalo webhola oyingqayizivele nonemininingwane e-El Tajín, owawunokubaluleka kwezenkolo nemikhosi. Okungenani kunezinkundla zebhola eziyi-17 edolobheni, lapho izimbangi bezidlala khona lo mdlalo. Imithetho kanye nenjongo yomdlalo ayikaqondwa ngokugcwele. Nokho, kukholakala ukuthi leli siko livela kumaMaya njengoba abahluliwe emdlalweni webhola babenqunywa amakhanda futhi benziwe imihlatshelo konkulunkulu. Flickr / Ukusetshenziswa Okufanele

“UNkulunkulu Wokuduma” kanye nemikhuba

Esinye sezici ezithakazelisa kakhulu ze-El Tajín ukuhlotshaniswa kwayo nokukhulekelwa kwamaTotonac unkulunkulu wokuduma, owaziwa ngokuthi uTajín, okuhunyushwa ngokuthi “ukuduma” noma “umbani” ngolimi lwabo lwendabuko. Igama lalo muzi ngokwalo liyamhlonipha lo nkulunkulu. Kukholakala ukuthi amasiko ahilela uMkhosi weVolador, abadansi ababelengiswe ngezintambo eziphotha phansi esigxotsheni esingamamitha angu-65, ayenziwa ngenjongo yokudumisa unkulunkulu, efuna ukuvikelwa nokuzala.

Amasethi ezinganekwane zika-El Tajín nemifanekiso eqoshiwe

I-El Tajín iqukethe izithombe eziqoshiwe eziningi zamatshe ezibonisa onkulunkulu nezidalwa zezinganekwane ezihlukahlukene. Kuhlanganiswe izinyoka, izingwe, kanye nezidalwa zasenganekwaneni zimelela izwe eliyimfihlakalo amaTotonac ayekholelwa kulo. Esinye sezithombe eziqoshiwe ezivelele kakhulu Isithombe sikaMose ebonisa umbusi wamaTotonac ehlotshiswe ngezigqoko eziwubukhazikhazi nezinto ezingokomfanekiso, ezibonisa amandla, igunya, nokuxhumana nokwaphezulu.

El Tajin
Umfanekiso Womholi Ohlezi. Totonac, Remojadas; I-Veracruz, eningizimu-maphakathi neGulf Coast, eMexico. Idethi: 300 AD-600 AD. Ubukhulu: 78.7 × 75 cm (31 × 29.5 in.). I-Terracotta. Umsuka: Remojadas. Museum: I-Chicago Art Institute. I-Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 3.0)

Impicabadala yempucuko eseyashabalala

Naphezu kocwaningo oluningi lwemivubukulo, ukwehla okungazelelwe kanye nokushiywa kwe-El Tajín kusaqhubeka kuyindaba eyimfihlakalo. Izazi-mlando nabavubukuli bacabangela ukuthi izici zendawo ezungezile, izingxabano zangaphakathi, noma izinguquko zamasiko kungenzeka kube nomthelela ekugcineni ukulahlwa kwesayithi. Nokho, imbangela yangempela ayikaziwa, okunezela ebuqilini obuzungeze i-El Tajín.

I-El Tajín ayaziwa kabanzi

I-El Tajín: Idolobha elilahlekile le "Thunder" kanye nabantu abangaqondakali 4
I-El Tajín, indawo ye-pre-Columbian ye-UNESCO World Heritage Archeological eSouthern Mexico. Can Stock Photo / LeonidAndronov

Naphezu kokuqashelwa njengeNdawo Yamagugu Omhlaba ye-UNESCO ngo-1992, i-El Tajín isalokhu ingaziwa kubantu abaningi ngaphandle kweMexico, idonsa abavakashi abambalwa uma iqhathaniswa nezinye izindawo ezidumile zaseMesoamerican njengeChichen Itza noma. I-Teotihuacan.

Amazwi wokugcina

I-El Tajín, nezakhiwo zayo ezesabekayo, izimpawu ezicebile zezinganekwane, kanye namagugu amasiko ayinkimbinkimbi, isebenza njengobufakazi bobukhulu bempucuko yamaTotonac. Izimfihlakalo zayo ziyaqhubeka nokuheha izazi-mlando kanye nezivakashi ngokufanayo, zisikhuthaza ukuba sihlole ukujula umlando wasendulo kanye nempucuko emangalisayo lokho kwabumba umhlaba wethu. Ukuvakashela e-El Tajín kusithatha ohambweni oluhehayo phakathi nesikhathi, okusenza sikwazi ukwazisa futhi simangale ngempumelelo yezokwakha, ubuciko, namasiko yalokhu. abantu abangaqondakali.


Ngemva kokufunda nge-El Tajín: Idolobha elilahlekile laseThunder, funda ngalo Idolobha Elilahlekile lase-Aztlan: Likuphi izwe lendabuko lama-Aztec? Bese ufunda mayelana Idolobha Legolide: Ingabe Idolobha Elilahlekile lasePaititi litholakele?