Abantu baseMelika bokuqala babevame ukuzingela ama-armadillos amakhulu futhi behlala ngaphakathi kwamagobolondo abo

Ama-Glyptodon kwakuyizilwane ezincelisayo ezinkulu, ezihlomile ezikhula zilingane neVolkswagen Beetle, futhi abantu bomdabu babekhosele ngaphakathi kwamagobolondo abo amakhulu.

Uma uthanda ukwazi ngezilwane zangaphambi komlando, cishe uke wezwa ngama-armadillos amakhulu. Lezi zilwane zazizulazula emhlabeni ezigidini zeminyaka edlule, futhi zaziyingxenye ebalulekile yesimiso sezinto eziphilayo nendawo yazo ezungezile. Namuhla, azisekho, kodwa zishiye ifa elicebile lokuthi zazisetshenziswa kanjani amasiko endabuko ezikhathini zangaphambi komlando. Eminyakeni yamuva, ososayensi baye bathola izindlela eziningi ezimangalisayo abantu bomdabu abasebenzisa ngazo i-armadillo enkulu ukuze baphile, okungase kubangele ngisho nokushabalala kwayo.

Abantu bakuqala baseMelika babezingela ama-armadillos amakhulu futhi behlala ngaphakathi kwamagobolondo abo 1
Ukunikezwa kwe-3D kwama-Glyptodons (i-armadillo enkulu) eyayihlala eNingizimu neMelika Ephakathi kusukela eminyakeni engaba yizigidi ezingu-5.3 kuya kwengu-11,700 edlule, okusho ukuthi abantu bakudala babehlala nalezi zidalwa ezinkulu. © I-AdobeStock

I-armadillos enkulu ku-Paleontology

Abantu bakuqala baseMelika babezingela ama-armadillos amakhulu futhi behlala ngaphakathi kwamagobolondo abo 2
Ama-Glyptodont, njengale nsalela e-Minnesota Science Museum, anamagobolondo ahlanganiswe ndawonye endaweni eqinile. © URyan Somma/Flickr

Ama-armadillos amakhulu angamalungu omndeni wakwa I-Glyptodontidae, iqembu lezilwane ezincelisayo ezingasekho ezazihlala eNingizimu Melika phakathi nenkathi Inkathi ye-Pleistocene. Kwakuyizilwane ezinkulu, zinesisindo esingamakhilogremu angu-1,500 futhi zilinganiselwa kumamitha angu-10 ubude. Ayenesivikelo esiyingqayizivele esingamathambo esasiwavikela ezilwaneni ezidla ezinye futhi ebanikeza indlela yokuzivikela esabekayo.

Izazi ze-paleontologists ziye zathola izinhlobo eziningana zama-armadillos amakhulu, kuhlanganise ne-Glyptodon, i-Doedicurus, ne-Panochthus. Lezi zinhlobo zazinezici ezihlukile zomzimba, kodwa zonke zazinezikhali ezifanayo futhi zaziyizilwane ezidla uhlaza.

Izici zomzimba ze-armadillos enkulu

Abantu bakuqala baseMelika babezingela ama-armadillos amakhulu futhi behlala ngaphakathi kwamagobolondo abo 3
Abesilisa baseDoedicurus babenemisila enama-spiked, efana nekilabhu okwakucatshangwa ukuthi yayisetshenziselwa ukulwa namanye abesilisa kanye nezilwane ezidla ezinye. © Peter Schouten

Ama-armadillos amakhulu ayeyizidalwa eziyingqayizivele ezinezici ezimbalwa ezimangalisayo. Babenegobolondo lezivikelo eliqinile elingamathambo elakhula laba likhulu njengeVolkswagen Beetle futhi lalimboza umzimba wabo wonke, kuhlanganise nekhanda, imilenze nomsila. Lesi sivikelo sakhiwe izinkulungwane zamapuleti amathambo ahlanganiswe ndawonye, ​​awanikeza indlela yokuzivikela esabekayo ngokumelene nezilwane ezidla ezinye.

Izinzipho zazo nazo zazihlukile, futhi zazisetshenziselwa ukumba imigodi, ukuthola ukudla, nokuzivikela ezilwaneni ezidla ezinye. Babenekhala ende ababelisebenzisela ukudla, futhi amazinyo abo ayeklanyelwe ukugaya utshani.

Indawo kanye nokusatshalaliswa kwama-armadillos amakhulu

Ama-armadillos amakhulu atholakala eNingizimu Melika, ikakhulukazi ezindaweni ezinotshani nama-savanna. Babekhetha izindawo ezinohlaza olucebile kanye nemithombo yamanzi futhi zazivame ukutholakala eduze nemifula namachibi.

Babekwaziwa futhi ngokumba imisele emikhulu ababeyisebenzisela ukukhosela nokuvikela. Le migodi yayivame ukujula ngamamitha ambalwa futhi ibanike indawo ephephile ezilwaneni ezidla ezinye kanye nezimo zezulu ezimbi kakhulu.

Ukusetshenziswa kwe-armadillos enkulu emasikweni omdabu

Ama-armadillos amakhulu adlala indima ebalulekile ezimpilweni zamasiko omdabu eNingizimu Melika. Ayezingelwa ukuze athole inyama yawo, eyayiwumthombo obalulekile wamaprotheni. Abomdabu babesebenzisa amagobolondo abo ngezinjongo ezihlukahlukene, njengokwenza izindawo zokukhosela, amathuluzi ngisho nezinsimbi zomculo.

Kwamanye amasiko, izikhali ze-armadillos ezinkulu zazisetshenziselwa izinjongo zenkolo nezingokomoya. Babekholelwa ukuthi lezi zikhali zazivikela futhi zingaxosha imimoya emibi.

Indima ye-armadillos enkulu ku-ecosystem

Ama-armadillos amakhulu ayeyizilwane ezidla uhlaza, futhi ayedlala indima ebalulekile ku-ecosystem ngokusiza ukugcina ukulingana phakathi kwezitshalo nezinye izilwane ezidla uhlaza. Zazaziwa ngokudla izitshalo eziqinile, ezinemicu ezinye izilwane ezidla uhlaza ezazingakwazi ukuzigaya, futhi zazisiza ekusakazeni imbewu kuyo yonke indawo yazo.

Imigodi yazo yayiyindawo yokuhlala nezinye izilwane, njengamagundane, izilwane ezihuquzelayo nezinyoni. Yabo izinhlelo zemigodi zazivame kakhulu ukuthi zingasetshenziswa izinhlobo eziningana ezahlukene ngesikhathi esisodwa.

I-armadillos enkulu yashabalala kanjani?

Isizathu esiqondile esabangela ukushabalala kwama-armadillo amakhulu akukaziwa, kodwa ososayensi bakholelwa ukuthi ukuzingela kwabantu kwaba nendima enkulu. Lapho abantu befika eNingizimu Melika, bazingela izilwane eziningi ezincelisayo, kuhlanganise nama-armadillos amakhulu, ukushabalala.

Kungenzeka ukuthi abantu sebeqalile ukuzingela ama-glyptodonts ngemva kokufika eNingizimu Melika, okungenzeka ukuthi kwaba nengxenye ekuqothulweni kwawo. © Heinrich Harder
Kungenzeka ukuthi abantu sebeqalile ukuzingela ama-glyptodonts ngemva kokufika eNingizimu Melika, okungenzeka ukuthi kwaba nengxenye ekuqothulweni kwawo. © UHeinrich Harder

Ukulahlekelwa kwalezi zilwane kwaba nomthelela omkhulu ku-ecosystem, futhi kwathatha izinkulungwane zeminyaka ukuthi i-ecosystem ilulame. Namuhla, okuwukuphela kobufakazi bokuba khona kwawo ngamathambo awo amakhulu kanye nefa abalishiya emasikweni ayethembele kuwo ukuze aphile.

Abantu bakuqala baseMelika babezingela ama-armadillos amakhulu futhi behlala ngaphakathi kwamagobolondo abo 4
I-Pampatherium kungolunye uhlobo olungasekho lwesilwane sangaphambi komlando esasihlala emazweni aseMelika ngesikhathi sePleistocene. Ezinye izinhlobo zanyamalala khona kanye emngceleni we-Pleistocene-Holocene. Ama-Pampatheres ngokuvamile ayefana nama-armadillos amakhulu, ikakhulukazi ekumeni kwawo ugebhezi lwekhanda, ikhala ende, kanye nokuba khona kwezindawo ezintathu ku-carapace (amabhande anyakazayo, ama-scapular kanye nezihlangu ze-pelvic). Phakathi kwezinto eziwahlukanisa nama-armadillos amazinyo angemuva, angama-bilobate kunokuba afane nesikhonkwane. © Wikimedia Commons

Abantu bazingela izilwane ezincelisayo ukuze ziqothulwe eNyakatho Melika

NjengaseNingizimu Melika, iNyakatho Melika yake yaba ikhaya lezilwane eziningi ezincelisayo ezinkulu, njengezilwane ezinkulu ezincelisayo, ama-mastodon, nama-sloth aphansi. Nokho, eminyakeni engaba ngu-13,000  edlule, lezi zilwane zaqala ukunyamalala. Ososayensi bakholelwa ukuthi ukuzingela kwabantu kwakungenye yezizathu eziphambili zokuqothulwa kwazo.

Abantu bakuqala baseMelika babezingela ama-armadillos amakhulu futhi behlala ngaphakathi kwamagobolondo abo 5
Izilwane ezincelisayo ezinoboya, ama-armadillo amakhulu kanye nezinhlobo ezintathu zamakamela zaziphakathi kwezilwane ezincelisayo ezingaphezu kuka-30 ezazizingelwa ukuze ziqothulwe abantu baseNyakatho Melika eminyakeni engu-13,000 12,000 kuya kweziyi- edlule. ngokuvumelana namaqiniso kakhulu, imodeli yekhompyutha eyinkimbinkimbi kuze kube manje. © iStock

Ukufika kwabantu (abaqoqi be-Paleolithic hunter-gatherers) eNyakatho Melika kwaba inguquko emlandweni we-ecosystem, futhi kwathatha izinkulungwane zeminyaka ukuthi i-ecosystem ilulame ekulahlekelweni yilezi zilwane eziyingqayizivele eco-friendly.

Ukufika kwabantu eNyakatho Melika kukholakala ukuthi kwenzeka eminyakeni eyi-15,000 kuya ku-20,000 edlule (eminyakeni engu-33,000 edlule, ngokusho kweminye imithombo) ngebhuloho lezwe elixhumanisa iSiberia yanamuhla, iRussia, ne-Alaska, elaziwa ngokuthi I-Bering Strait. Lokhu kufuduka kwaba isenzakalo esibalulekile esalolonga umlando wezwekazi futhi sashintsha i-ecosystem ngezindlela ezisacutshungulwa ososayensi kuze kube namuhla.

Omunye wemithelela ephawulekayo yokufika kwabantu eNyakatho Melika kwaba ukwethulwa kwezinhlobo ezintsha ezinjengamahhashi, izinkomo, izingulube, nezinye izilwane ezifuywayo ezalethwa kanye nezifiki. Lokhu kwaholela ekushintsheni kwezimila nokwakheka kwenhlabathi, okwaphumela ekugudluzweni kwezinhlobo zomdabu kanye nochungechunge lokuguquguquka kwemvelo.

Inani labantu eNyakatho Melika liphinde labangela imithelela eminingana kwezemvelo ngezolimo, ukuzingela, nokugawulwa kwamahlathi, okwaphumela ekuqothulweni kwezinhlobo zezilwane ezihlukahlukene, ezihlanganisa ama-mammoth, ama-giant ground sloths, namahlosi anamazinyo e-saber.

Naphezu kokubangela izinguquko ezinkulu zemvelo, abantu baphinde bethula izindlela ezintsha zezolimo, ubuchwepheshe obuthuthukisiwe futhi bakha umnotho omusha owathuthukisa izinga labo lokuphila. Ngakho-ke, ukufika kwabantu eNyakatho Melika akukwazi ukubukwa kuphela ngombono ongemuhle kodwa kuphinde kwaletha imithelela emihle ebalulekile esifundeni.

Isimo samanje kanye nokongiwa kwama-armadillos amakhulu

Ngeshwa, ama-armadillos amakhulu angaphambi komlando awasekho, futhi azikho izibonelo eziphilayo ezisele. Kodwa-ke, ifa labo liyaqhubeka kumasiko ayethembele kuwo ukuze aphile kanye nomphakathi wesayensi owafundayo ukuze uqonde umlando we-ecosystem.

Abantu bakuqala baseMelika babezingela ama-armadillos amakhulu futhi behlala ngaphakathi kwamagobolondo abo 6
Ucwaningo lwe-DNA lwembula ukuthi izihlobo zesimanje eziseduze kakhulu zamaGlyptodonts ama-pink fairy armadillos (I-Chlamyphorus truncatuskanye nama-armadillos amakhulu (I-Priodontes maximus). © Fickr

Namuhla, kunemizamo eminingana yokongiwa kwemvelo yokuvikela izindawo zokuhlala zezinye izinhlobo ze-armadillo, njenge-armadillo enamabhande ayisithupha kanye ne-pink fairy armadillo. Le mizamo ibalulekile ekugcineni ibhalansi ye-ecosystem kanye nokulondoloza lezi zilwane eziyingqayizivele ukuze kuzuze izizukulwane ezizayo.

Amazwi wokugcina

Ama-armadillos amakhulu kwakuyizidalwa zangaphambi komlando ezihehayo ezabamba iqhaza elibalulekile ku-ecosystem kanye nempilo yamasiko endabuko. Bazingelwa ukuba baqothulwe abantu, futhi ukulahlekelwa kwabo kwaba nomthelela omkhulu emlandweni we-ecosystem. Namuhla, singafunda efeni lazo futhi sisebenzele ukuvikela ezinye izinhlobo ze-armadillo kanye nokugcina ibhalansi ye-ecosystem.