Phanga la Theopetra: Zinsinsi zakale zamapangidwe akale kwambiri padziko lapansi opangidwa ndi anthu

Phanga la Theopetra linali kwawo kwa anthu kuyambira zaka 130,000 zapitazo, kudzitamandira zinsinsi zambiri zakale za mbiri ya anthu.
Phanga la Theopetra: Zinsinsi zakale zamapangidwe akale kwambiri padziko lapansi opangidwa ndi anthu 1
Zosangalatsa za Stone Age kuphanga la Theopetra. © Kartson

Neanderthals ndi amodzi mwa mitundu yochititsa chidwi kwambiri ya anthu yomwe idakhalapo. Anthu am'mbiri yakale awa anali okhuthala, amphamvu, anali ndi mphuno zowoneka bwino komanso mphuno zachilendo zotuluka. Zikumveka zodabwitsa, chabwino? Nkhani yake ndi yakuti, a Neanderthals nawonso ankakhala ndi moyo wosiyana kwambiri ndi umene anthufe timachita masiku ano. Iwo ankasangalala kwambiri m’malo ovuta kwambiri kumene ankasaka nyama zazikulu ngati mammoth a ubweya wa nkhosa ndipo ankakhala m’mapanga kuti adziteteze ku zinthu zolusa komanso zolusa.

Phanga la Theopetra: Zinsinsi zakale zamapangidwe akale kwambiri padziko lapansi opangidwa ndi anthu 2
Neanderthals, mitundu kapena mitundu ya anthu akale omwe amakhala ku Eurasia mpaka zaka 40,000 zapitazo. "Zifukwa za Neanderthal kuzimiririka zaka 40,000 zapitazo zikutsutsanabe kwambiri. © Wikimedia Commons

Ma Neanderthal apezeka m'mapanga ambiri ku Europe, zomwe zapangitsa akatswiri ena ofukula zinthu zakale kukhulupirira kuti anthu akalewa amakhala nthawi yayitali m'malo oterowo. Akatswiri ambiri amavomereza kuti a Neanderthal sanamangire okha nyumbazi koma ayenera kuti anazigwiritsa ntchito kalekale anthu amakono asanamangidwe. Komabe, lingaliro ili likhoza kukhala labodza, chifukwa pali chosiyana chimodzi - Phanga la Theopetra.

Theopetra Cave

Theopetra Cave
Theopetra (kwenikweni “Mwala wa Mulungu”) phanga, malo akale, pafupifupi 4 km kuchokera Meteora, Trikala, Thessaly, Greece. © Shutterstock

Mapanga angapo akale ochititsa chidwi amapezeka pafupi ndi Meteora, malo okongola, apadera komanso odabwitsa ku Greece wakale. Theopetra Cave ndi imodzi mwa izo. Ndi malo amodzi ofukula mabwinja, kulola ochita kafukufuku kudziwa bwino mbiri yakale ku Greece.

Amakhulupirira kuti Theopetra Cave, yomwe ili m'matanthwe a miyala ya miyala ya Meteora ku Thessaly, Central Greece, idakhalako zaka 130,000 zapitazo, ndikupangitsa kuti ikhale malo oyamba kumangidwa kwa anthu padziko lapansi.

Akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale amanena kuti pali umboni wakuti anthu anapitirizabe kukhala m’phangalo, kuyambira chapakati pa phirilo. Palaeolithic nthawi ndi kupitiriza mpaka mapeto a Nthawi ya Neolithic.

Malo a Theopetra Cave ndi tsatanetsatane wake

Theopetra Cave
Thanthwe la Theopetra: Phanga la Theopetra lili kumpoto chakum’maŵa kwa miyala imeneyi, makilomita atatu kum’mwera kwa Kalambaka (3°21’40′′E, 46°39’40′′N), ku Thessaly, pakati pa Greece. . © Wikimedia Commons

Pafupi mamita 100 (mamita 330) pamwamba pa chigwa, Phanga la Theopetra limapezeka kumtunda wa kumpoto chakum'mawa kwa phiri la miyala yamchere yotchedwa "Theopetra Rock". Polowera kuphanga kumapereka malingaliro odabwitsa a anthu okongola a Theopetra, pomwe Mtsinje wa Lethaios, nthambi ya Mtsinje wa Pineios, umayenda osati patali.

Akatswiri a sayansi ya nthaka amayerekezera kuti phiri la miyala ya laimu linapangidwa koyamba pakati pa zaka 137 ndi 65 miliyoni zapitazo, panthawi ya Upper Cretaceous. Malinga ndi zomwe anapeza pofukula mabwinja, umboni woyamba wa anthu okhala m'phanga unayamba nthawi ya Middle Palaeolithic, yomwe inachitika pafupifupi zaka 13,0000 zapitazo.

Theopetra Cave
Zosangalatsa za Stone Age kuphanga la Theopetra. © Kartson

Phangali ndi pafupifupi masikweya mita 500 (5380 sq ft) kukula kwake ndipo limadziwika kuti ndi pafupifupi quadrilateral mawonekedwe ake okhala ndi tinthu tating'ono m'mphepete mwake. Polowera kuphanga la Theopetra ndi lalikulu kwambiri, lomwe limapangitsa kuti kuwala kwachilengedwe kulowe mkati mwakuya kwaphangalo.

Zomwe zapezedwa modabwitsa zimawulula zinsinsi zakale za Theopetra Cave

Kufukula kwa Phanga la Theopetra kudayamba mu 1987 ndikupitilira mpaka 2007, ndipo zinthu zambiri zochititsa chidwi zapezeka pamalo akale kwazaka zambiri. Tikumbukenso kuti pamene kafukufuku ofukula zinthu zakale anayambika, Theopetra Phanga anali kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati malo osakhalitsa abusa a m'deralo kusunga ziweto zawo.

Theopetra Cave ofukula zinthu zakale wapeza zinthu zingapo zochititsa chidwi. Chimodzi chimakhudzana ndi nyengo ya anthu okhala m'phanga. Akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale adatsimikiza kuti panali nyengo yotentha komanso yozizira panthawi yomwe mphangayo inkagwira ntchito pofufuza zitsanzo za dothi lochokera kumalo aliwonse ofukula zakale. Chiwerengero cha anthu m’phangacho chinkasinthasintha pamene nyengo inasintha.

Malinga ndi zomwe akatswiri ofukula zakale apeza, phangali lidakhalapo nthawi zonse mu Middle and Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, ndi Neolithic nthawi. Zatsimikiziridwa ndi kupezedwa kwa zinthu zingapo, monga malasha ndi mafupa a anthu, kuti phangalo linakhalamo pakati pa zaka za 135,000 ndi 4,000 BC, ndipo kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwakanthawi kunapitilira mu Bronze Age mpaka nthawi zakale mpaka chaka. 1955.

Zinthu zina zomwe zapezedwa mkati mwa mphanga zikuphatikizapo mafupa ndi zipolopolo, komanso mafupa a zaka za m'ma 15000, 9000, ndi 8000 BC, ndi zomera ndi mbewu zomwe zimawulula zizolowezi zazakudya za anthu omwe anali m'phangamo.

Khoma lakale kwambiri padziko lapansi

Zotsalira za khoma lamwala lomwe poyamba linkatsekereza mbali ina ya khomo la Theopetra Cave ndi chinthu china chodabwitsa chomwe chinapezeka kumeneko. Asayansi adatha kunena kuti khomali lidakhala zaka pafupifupi 23,000 pogwiritsa ntchito njira yolumikizirana yomwe imadziwika kuti luminescence yochititsa chidwi.

Theopetra Cave
Khoma la Theopetra - mwina nyumba yakale kwambiri yopangidwa ndi anthu. © Archaeology

Ofufuza akukhulupirira kuti chifukwa cha msinkhu wa khoma limeneli, lomwe ndi lofanana ndi nyengo yomalizira ya madzi oundana, anthu okhala m’phangalo ayenera kuti anamangapo kuti pasakhale kuzizira. Akuti ichi ndi nyumba yakale kwambiri yodziwika bwino yopangidwa ndi anthu ku Greece, ndipo mwinanso padziko lonse lapansi.

Pafupifupi mapazi atatu a hominid, okhomeredwa pansi pa dothi lofewa la mphanga, adalengezedwa kuti apezekanso. Zakhala zikuganiziridwa kuti ana ambiri a Neanderthal, azaka ziwiri mpaka zinayi, omwe adakhala m'phanga nthawi ya Middle Palaeolithic adapanga mapazi kutengera mawonekedwe ndi kukula kwawo.

Avgi - mtsikana wazaka 7,000 yemwe adapezeka m'phanga

Zotsalira za mayi wazaka 18, yemwe amakhala ku Greece nthawi ya Mesolithic pafupifupi zaka 7,000 zapitazo, anali chimodzi mwazinthu zofunika kwambiri zomwe zidapezeka mkati mwa Theopetra Cave. Asayansi anakonzanso nkhope ya wachinyamatayo atagwira ntchito mwakhama kwa zaka zambiri, ndipo anam’patsa dzina lakuti “Avgi” (Dawn).

Theopetra Cave
Zosangalatsa za Avgi, zomwe zinapezedwa ndi ofukula zakale Aikaterini Kyparissi-Apostolika, zikuwonetsedwa ku Acropolis Museum ku Athens. © Oscar Nilsson

Pulofesa Papagrigorakis, dokotala wa mafupa, anagwiritsa ntchito mano a Avgi monga maziko a kukonzanso kwathunthu kwa nkhope yake. Chifukwa chosowa umboni, zovala zake, makamaka tsitsi lake, zinali zovuta kwambiri kuti apangenso.

Mawu omaliza

Theopetra Cave zovuta ndizosiyana ndi zina zonse zodziwika malo akale ku Greece, komanso padziko lonse lapansi potengera chilengedwe ndi zida zake zaukadaulo, zomwe zidagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu oyamba kukhala mderali.

Funso ndilakuti: Kodi anthu akale akadamanga bwanji chimangidwe chovuta chotere, ngakhale asanakhale nacho luso lopanga zida zoyambira? Chododometsachi chachititsa chidwi asayansi komanso omwe si asayansi - ndipo kafukufuku wina akuwonetsa kuti yankho likhoza kukhala mu luso laukadaulo la makolo athu akale.

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