Alien DNA m'thupi la kholo lakale kwambiri padziko lapansi!

Mafupa a zaka 400,000 ali ndi umboni wa mitundu ndi mitundu yosadziwika, yapangitsa asayansi kukayikira chirichonse chimene akudziwa ponena za chisinthiko chaumunthu.
Alien DNA m'thupi la kholo lakale kwambiri padziko lapansi!

Mu November 2013, asayansi anapeza DNA ya munthu wakale kwambiri padziko lonse, yomwe ili ndi umboni wa zamoyo zosadziwika, kuchokera ku fupa la ntchafu la zaka 400,000. DNA kuchokera kwa makolo aumunthuwa omwe ali ndi zaka mazana mazana akuwonetsa chisinthiko chovuta mu chiyambi cha Neanderthals ndi anthu amakono. Fupa ndi la munthu, koma lili ndi 'ALIEN DNA'. Zimene anapezazi zachititsa asayansi kukayikira chilichonse chimene akudziwa ponena za chisinthiko cha anthu.

Fupa la ntchafu la hominin wazaka 400,000 adapereka DNA ya mitochondrial kuti iunike.
Fupa la ntchafu la hominin wazaka 400,000 adapereka DNA ya mitochondrial kuti iunike. © Flickr

Ma genetic a 400,000 azaka zakubadwa amachokera ku mafupa omwe adalumikizidwa ndi Neanderthals ku Spain - koma siginecha yake ndi yofanana kwambiri ndi ya anthu ena akale ochokera ku Siberia, omwe amadziwika kuti Denisovans.

Zotsalira zakale za anthu 6,000, zomwe zikuimira anthu pafupifupi 28, zinapezedwa pamalo a Sima de los Huesos, phanga lovuta kupeza lomwe lili pamtunda wa mamita 100 kumpoto kwa Spain. Zokwiriridwa pansizo zinkawoneka kukhala zosungidwa bwino modabwitsa, chifukwa mwa zina chifukwa cha kutentha kosalekeza kosalekeza kwa phangalo ndi chinyezi chambiri.

Mafupa ochokera kuphanga la Sima de los Huesos adaperekedwa kwa mitundu yoyambirira ya anthu yotchedwa Homo heidelbergensis. Komabe, ofufuza amanena kuti chigobacho ndi chofanana ndi cha Neanderthals - moti ena amati anthu a Sima de los Huesos anali kwenikweni a Neanderthals osati oimira Homo heidelbergensis.
Mafupa ochokera kuphanga la Sima de los Huesos adaperekedwa kwa mitundu yoyambirira ya anthu yotchedwa Homo heidelbergensis. Komabe, ofufuza amanena kuti chigobacho ndi chofanana ndi cha Neanderthals - kotero kuti ena amati anthu a Sima de los Huesos anali kwenikweni a Neanderthals osati oimira Homo heidelbergensis. © World History Encyclopaedia

Ofufuza omwe adasanthula adati zomwe adapeza zikuwonetsa "kulumikizana kosayembekezereka" pakati pa mitundu iwiri ya msuweni wathu yomwe yatha. Kupezeka kumeneku kungathe kusokoneza chinsinsicho - osati kwa anthu oyambirira okha omwe ankakhala m'phanga lotchedwa Sima de los Huesos (Chisipanishi lotanthauza "Dzenje la Mafupa"), komanso kwa anthu ena osadziwika bwino m'derali. Nthawi ya Pleistocene.

Kusanthula kwam'mbuyo kwa mafupa a mphanga kunapangitsa ofufuza kuganiza kuti anthu a Sima de los Huesos anali ogwirizana kwambiri ndi a Neanderthals pamaziko a chigoba chawo. Koma DNA ya mitochondrial inali yofanana kwambiri ndi ya a Denisovans, anthu oyambirira omwe ankaganiziridwa kuti adasiyana ndi Neanderthals pafupifupi zaka 640,000 zapitazo.

Mtundu wachitatu wa munthu, wotchedwa Denisovans, ukuwoneka kuti unakhalapo ku Asia ndi Neanderthals ndi anthu oyambirira amakono. Ziwiri zotsirizirazi zimadziwika kuchokera ku zinthu zakale zakufa zambiri komanso zinthu zakale. Denisovans amatanthauzidwa mpaka pano kokha ndi DNA kuchokera ku fupa limodzi la fupa ndi mano awiri-koma amawulula kupotoza kwatsopano kwa nkhani yaumunthu.
Mtundu wachitatu wa munthu, wotchedwa Denisovans, ukuwoneka kuti unakhalapo ku Asia ndi Neanderthals ndi anthu oyambirira amakono. Ziwiri zotsirizirazi zimadziwika kuchokera ku zinthu zakale zakufa zambiri komanso zinthu zakale. Denisovans amatanthauzidwa mpaka pano kokha ndi DNA kuchokera ku fupa limodzi la fupa ndi mano awiri-koma amawulula kupotoza kwatsopano kwa nkhani yaumunthu. © National Geographic

Asayansi anapezanso kuti 1 peresenti ya jini ya Denisovan inachokera kwa wachibale wina wosamvetsetseka wotchedwa “munthu wakale kwambiri” ndi akatswiri. Akutinso anthu ena amakono angathe kukhala ndi 15 peresenti ya madera a majini “akale kwambiri” ameneŵa. Choncho, phunziroli likuwonetsa kuti anthu a Sima de los Huesos anali ogwirizana kwambiri ndi a Neanderthals, Denisovans ndi anthu osadziwika a anthu oyambirira. Chotero, kodi kholo losadziwika laumunthu lingakhale ndani?

Mmodzi wokhoza kupikisana angakhale Homo erectus, kholo laumunthu lomwe linatha lomwe linakhalapo mu Africa pafupifupi zaka miliyoni imodzi zapitazo. Vuto ndiloti sitinapezepo Ndi erectus DNA, kotero zomwe tingathe kuchita ndikungoganiza pakali pano.

Kumbali ina, akatswiri ena anthanthi apereka malingaliro ochititsa chidwi kwambiri. Amati zomwe zimatchedwa 97 peresenti ya zotsatizana zosalemba mu DNA yamunthu ndizochepa chabe kuposa chibadwa. dongosolo la moyo wakunja mitundu.

Malinga ndi iwo, m'mbuyomu, DNA yaumunthu idapangidwa mwadala ndi mtundu wina wamtundu wapamwamba wakunja; ndipo kholo losadziwika "lapamwamba kwambiri" la anthu a Sima de los Huesos likhoza kukhala umboni wa chisinthiko chochita ichi.

Kugwirizana kwa zakuthambo kapena mitundu ya anthu yosadziwika, kaya itakhala yotani, zomwe zapezazi zimangowonjezera zovuta za chisinthiko cha anthu amakono - ndizotheka kuti pakhala pali anthu ambiri omwe akukhudzidwa. Iwo ndi achinsinsi, iwo ndi zinsinsi ndi alipo (mkati mwathu) kwa zaka mamiliyoni ambiri.

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