Mwala wazaka 4 biliyoni wochokera ku Earth unapezedwa pa Mwezi: Kodi akatswiri amati chiyani?

Mu Januware 2019, asayansi ku Australia adapeza zinthu zochititsa mantha, ndikuwulula kuti mwala womwe udabwezedwa ndi ogwira ntchito ku Apollo 14 moon adachokera ku Earth.
Mwala wazaka 4 biliyoni wochokera ku Earth unapezedwa pa Mwezi: Kodi akatswiri amati chiyani? 1
© Image Mawu: NASA

Asayansi akhala akukhulupirira kuti Mwezi unapangidwa kuchokera ku zinyalala zomwe zinasiyidwa pambuyo poti pulaneti lalikulu la Mars lotchedwa Theia (lotchedwanso “Thea”) litawombana ndi Dziko Lapansi. Chochitika chowopsachi chikuvomerezedwa ndi anthu ambiri ngati kufotokozera kotsogola kwa momwe Dziko lapansi linapezera satellite yake, koma pali zambiri zomwe sitikudziwa za nthawi yosangalatsayi m'mbiri ya dziko lathu lapansi.

Mwala wazaka 4 biliyoni wochokera ku Earth unapezedwa pa Mwezi: Kodi akatswiri amati chiyani? 2
Chithunzi cha pulaneti laling'ono lomwe likugwa pa Dziko lapansi ndikupangitsa kuti liphulike. Zinthu za chithunzichi zoperekedwa ndi NASA. © Mawu a Chithunzi: MR.Somchat Parkaythong/Shutterstock

Pamene openda zakuthambo a Apollo anafufuza pamwamba pa mwezi, anapeza miyala ingapo yachilendo yomwe inkawoneka ngati yachilendo. Zidutswa zamakonazi zimadziwika kuti miyala ya "blue-loop" chifukwa cha mtundu wawo wobiriwira wobiriwira komanso mawonekedwe opindika akawonedwa pansi pakukula.

Matanthwe odabwitsawa adapezeka koyamba pa Mwezi ndi akatswiri a zakuthambo pa ntchito ya Apollo 14 mu 1971. Koma chimene iwo ali kwenikweni, ndi kumene iwo anachokera, chakhala chinsinsi.

Mwala wazaka 4 biliyoni wochokera ku Earth unapezedwa pa Mwezi: Kodi akatswiri amati chiyani? 3
Chitsanzo cha 14321, chomwe nthawi zambiri chimadziwika kuti Big Bertha, ndi 9.0 kilogram breccia yomwe idapezedwa ku Station C1 pafupi ndi mkombero wa crater. Chithunzi chojambulidwa mu Lunar Receiving Laboratory. © Mawu a Chithunzi: Wikimedia Commons

Mu Januware 2019, asayansi ku Australia adapeza zinthu zochititsa mantha, ndikuwulula kuti mwala womwe udabwezedwa ndi ogwira ntchito ku Apollo 14 moon adachokera ku Earth.

Asayansiwa ananena m’nkhani yofalitsidwa m’magazini yotchedwa Earth and Planetary Science Letters kuti mwalawu uyenera kuti unali mbali ya zinyalala zimene zinaponyedwa ku mwezi kuchokera ku Dziko Lapansi chifukwa cha kugwa kwa asteroid ndi pulaneti lathu zaka mabiliyoni ambiri m’mbuyomo.

Miyalayo idasonkhanitsidwa panthawi ya ntchito ya Apollo 14, yomwe idakhazikitsidwa mu 1971 ndipo inali ntchito yachitatu yamlengalenga kuti ifike pamwezi. Alan Shepard, Stuart Roosa, ndi Edgar Mitchell anakhala masiku ambiri akuzungulira mwezi akuchita zofufuza za sayansi ndi kuona, pamene Shepard ndi Mitchell anachita nawo ulendo wa maola 33 pamwamba pa mwezi.

Mwala wazaka 4 biliyoni wochokera ku Earth unapezedwa pa Mwezi: Kodi akatswiri amati chiyani? 4
Apollo 14 Commander Alan Shepard amaima pafupi ndi Modular Equipment Transporter (MET). MET, yomwe akatswiri a zakuthambo adatcha "rickshaw," inali ngolo yonyamula zida, makamera ndi zitsanzo pamtunda wa mwezi. Shepard amatha kudziwika ndi mzere wolunjika pa chisoti chake. © Mawu a Chithunzi: Wikimedia Commons

Kuphatikiza apo, oyenda mumlengalenga adabweranso ndi miyala pafupifupi 42kg. Zinyalala za mwezizi zatithandiza kudziwa zambiri zokhudza mmene mwezi unapangidwira komanso mmene zinachitikira.

Kafukufuku waposachedwa wa zina mwazinthu izi, komabe, wawonetsa kuti mwala umodzi womwe umasonkhanitsidwa ndi Shepard ndi Mitchell uyenera kuti unayambira pa Dziko Lapansi.

Mwala wazaka 4 biliyoni wochokera ku Earth unapezedwa pa Mwezi: Kodi akatswiri amati chiyani? 5
Amuna awiri omwe amayendera mwezi wa Apollo 14, anajambula ndi kusonkhanitsa mwala wawukulu womwe uli pamwamba pakatikati pa chithunzichi. Mwalawu, womwe umatulutsa mthunzi kumanzere, ndi chitsanzo cha mwezi 14321, chomwe chimatchedwa thanthwe lalikulu la basketball ndi olemba nkhani ndipo amatchedwa "Big Bertha" ndi ofufuza akuluakulu. © Wikimedia Commons

Malinga ndi zimene Pulofesa Alexander Nemchin wa pa yunivesite ya Curtin's School of Earth and Planetary Sciences ku Western Australia, mwala wina wa mwezi umakhala wofanana kwambiri ndi granite, ndipo mkati mwake muli miyala ya quartz yambiri. Ngakhale kuti quartz ndi yofala padziko lapansi, ndizovuta kwambiri kuzipeza pamwezi.

Komanso, asayansi anafufuza zircon zomwe zili mu thanthwe, mchere womwe uli m'gulu la neo-silicates omwe alipo padziko lapansi ndi mwezi. Iwo adawona kuti zircon zomwe zidadziwika mumwala zimagwirizana ndi mitundu yapadziko lapansi koma osati chilichonse chomwe chidapezeka m'mbuyomu. Asayansiwo anapeza kuti thanthwelo linayamba kukhala pamalo opangira okosijeni, omwe sangakhale osowa kwambiri pamwezi.

Malinga ndi kunena kwa Nemchin, zimene anaonazi zikupereka umboni waukulu wakuti thanthwelo silinalengedwe pa mwezi, koma linachokera ku Dziko Lapansi. Iye sanatsutse lingaliro lakuti thanthwelo linayamba kuchitika pamikhalidwe yofanana kwa kanthaŵi pa mwezi, koma anagamula kuti zimenezi n’zosatheka.

M'malo mwake, ofufuzawo adapereka mwayi wina. Iwo ankaganiza kuti thanthwe linasamutsidwa ku mwezi pambuyo pa kulengedwa kwake, mwina chifukwa cha kukhudzidwa kwa asteroid ndi Dziko Lapansi zaka mabiliyoni zapitazo.

Malinga ndi lingaliro limeneli, asteroid inawombana ndi Dziko Lapansi zaka mabiliyoni ambiri zapitazo, kutulutsa zinyalala ndi miyala yamtengo wapatali m’njira yozungulira, yomwe ina inatera pamwezi.

Mwala wazaka 4 biliyoni wochokera ku Earth unapezedwa pa Mwezi: Kodi akatswiri amati chiyani? 6
Openda zakuthambo a Apollo 14 Edgar Mitchell ndi Alan Shepard amaphunzira za Big Bertha pamsonkhano wa atolankhani ku Johnson Space Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory. © Mawu a Chithunzi: Wikimedia Commons

Lingaliro limeneli likhoza kufotokoza chifukwa chake thanthwelo linkawoneka kuti lili ndi makemikolo ogwirizana ndi zochitika zapadziko lapansi m'malo mokhala ndi mapulaneti a mwezi. Zimagwirizananso ndi zikhulupiriro za mtundu wa mabomba omwe anasintha dziko lapansi zaka mabiliyoni ambiri zapitazo.

Malinga ndi akatswiri ambiri, ma asteroids ndi meteorites mwina adagunda Dziko lapansi pazaka zake zoyambirira zachitukuko, zomwe zidapangitsa kusokoneza kwakukulu pamwamba pake.

Kuwonjezera apo, zikuganiziridwa kuti mwezi unali pafupi katatu ndi Dziko lapansi panthawiyi, zomwe zinapangitsa kuti mwezi ukhale wokhudzidwa kwambiri ndi zinyalala zowuluka chifukwa cha kugunda kumeneku.

Ngati lingaliro ili liri lolondola, mwala womwe wabwezedwa ndi antchito a Apollo 14 ndi umodzi mwa miyala yakale kwambiri padziko lapansi yomwe idapezekapo. Kusanthula kwa Zircon kunayika zaka za thanthwe pafupifupi zaka 4 biliyoni, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zocheperapo kuposa zircon crystal yomwe imapezeka ku Western Australia ngati thanthwe lakale kwambiri padziko lapansi.

Miyala yakale iyi ingawoneke ngati miyala yaying'ono, yosadzikuza, komabe imatha kusintha chidziwitso chathu cha magawo oyamba a dziko lapansi.

Pamwambapa, awa anali malingaliro asayansi ambiri. Koma pali chochita chodabwitsa pakupezedwaku. Malinga ndi akatswiri ena, mwalawu sunafike pamwamba pa mwezi mwachibadwa, koma mwa njira zopangira. Iwo amadzinenera izi, akukhulupirira mwa Silurian hypothesis.

Lingaliro la Silurian kwenikweni limapereka lingaliro lakuti anthu sialiyense zamoyo zoyamba kusanduka zamoyo padziko lapansi ndipo zikanakhala kuti zinakhalako zaka 100 miliyoni zapitazo, pafupifupi umboni wonse wa zimenezi ukanakhala utatayika pofika pano.

Mwala wazaka 4 biliyoni wochokera ku Earth unapezedwa pa Mwezi: Kodi akatswiri amati chiyani? 7
Chitukuko chotsogola chokhala padziko lapansi pamaso pa anthu. © Image Mawu: Zishan Liu | Chilolezo chochokera ku Dreamstime.Com (Zojambula Zosintha/Zogulitsa Zamalonda)

Kuti timveke bwino, wolemba nawo zasayansi ndi kafukufuku Adam Frank adati m'chigawo cha Atlantic, "Sikuti nthawi zambiri mumasindikiza pepala lomwe limapereka lingaliro lomwe simulichirikiza." Mwanjira ina, sakhulupirira kukhalapo kwa chitukuko chakale cha Time Lords ndi Lizard People. M’malo mwake, cholinga chawo ndicho kupeza mmene tingapezere umboni wa chitukuko chakale pa mapulaneti akutali.

Zitha kuwoneka zomveka kuti titha kuchitira umboni za chitukuko chotere - pambuyo pake, ma dinosaur analipo zaka 100 miliyoni zapitazo, ndipo tikudziwa izi chifukwa zakale zawo zapezeka. Iwo anali, komabe, kwa zaka zoposa 150 miliyoni.

Zimenezi n’zofunika kwambiri chifukwa sizimangonena kuti mabwinja a chitukuko chongoyerekezerachi adzakhala akale bwanji. Zilinso za nthawi yayitali bwanji zakhalapo. Umunthu wakula padziko lonse lapansi m'kanthawi kochepa modabwitsa - pafupifupi zaka 100,000.

Ngati zamoyo zina zikanakhalanso chimodzimodzi, mwayi wathu woupeza m’mbiri ya nthaka ukanakhala wochepa kwambiri. Kafukufuku wa Frank ndi wolemba nawo zanyengo Gavin Schmidt akufuna kudziwa njira zodziwira chitukuko chanthawi yayitali.

Kotero, kodi okhulupirira amenewo angakhale olondola? Kodi izi ndizotheka kuti pafupifupi zaka mabiliyoni 4 zapitazo, chitukuko chotsogola ngati ife chidachita bwino padziko lapansi lino ndipo adatha kukopa mwezi. Tikudziwa kuti Dziko Lapansi likuyembekezeka kukhala zaka 4.54 biliyoni, koma uku ndikungoyerekeza, palibe amene anganene kuti dziko lapansi lidalengedwa liti, komanso zitukuko zingati zomwe zidawona m'mbiri yake yomwe.

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