Matupi a Windover, pakati pazinthu zodabwitsa kwambiri zakale zokumbidwa pansi zomwe zidapezedwa ku North America

Matupi a Bog
Matupi a Bog

Mafupa atangotsimikiza kuti ndi okalamba kwambiri osati chifukwa cha kupha anthu ambiri pomwe matupi 167 omwe adapezeka padziwe ku Windover, Florida, adayamba kulimbikitsa chidwi cha akatswiri ofukula zakale. Ofufuza ochokera ku Florida State University adafika pamalowo, akukhulupirira kuti mafupa ambiri achimereka ku America adapezeka m'madambo.

Matupi a Windover bog
Chithunzi chosonyeza kuyikidwa m'manda a Windover © ️ Trail of Florida's Indian Heritage

Amayerekezera kuti mafupawo anali azaka 500-600. Mafupawo anali a radiocarbon atalembedwa. Mibadwo ya mitembo inali kuyambira zaka 6,990 mpaka 8,120. Gulu lamaphunziro lidasangalatsidwa pano. Windover Bog yakhala imodzi mwazinthu zofunikira kwambiri zakale ku United States.

Steve Vanderjagt, wodziwulula, anali kugwiritsa ntchito backhoe kutsitsa dziwe mu 1982 pakupanga kagawidwe katsopano pafupifupi pakati pa Disney World ndi Cape Canaveral. Vanderjagt adasokonezedwa ndi kuchuluka kwa miyala yomwe inali m'dziwe chifukwa gawo la Florida silimadziwika ndi miyala.

chithaphwi
Dziwe lomwe Steve adapunthwa. © ️ Florida Historical Society

Vanderjagt adatuluka pankhope pake ndikupita kukawona, koma atazindikira kuti wapeza mulu waukulu wamafupa. Nthawi yomweyo analankhula ndi akuluakulu. Malowa adangosungidwa chifukwa cha chidwi chake chachilengedwe.

Oyesa zamankhwala atalengeza kuti anali okalamba kwambiri, akatswiri ochokera ku Florida State University adabweretsedwanso (kusunthanso kwina kwabwino ndi Vanderjagt- malo omwe amapezeka nthawi zambiri amawonongeka chifukwa akatswiri samatchedwa). EKS Corporation, omwe amapanga tsambalo, adachita chidwi kwambiri kotero kuti adalipirira chibwenzi cha radiocarbon. Pambuyo pakupeza masiku odabwitsa, State of Florida idapereka ndalama pofukula.

Mosiyana ndi zotsalira za anthu zomwe zidapezeka m'matumba aku Europe, matupi omwe adapezeka ku Florida ndi mafupa okhaokha - palibe mnofu wotsalira m'mafupa. Komabe, izi sizimachepetsa mtengo wawo. Nkhani yaubongo idapezeka pafupifupi theka la zigaza. Mafupa ambiri adapezeka atagona mbali zawo zakumanzere, mitu yawo ikuyang'ana chakumadzulo, mwina chakumadzulo, ndipo nkhope zikuloza kumpoto.

Ambiri anali m'mimba mwa mwana, atakweza miyendo, koma atatu anali atagona. Chosangalatsa ndichakuti, thupi lirilonse linali ndi kachingwe kothamangitsidwa ndi nsalu yomata yomwe idazungulira, mwina kuti isakwere pamwamba pamadzi pomwe kuwola kumadzaza ndi mpweya. Njira yothandizirayi pamapeto pake idateteza zotsalazo kwa obisala (nyama ndi olanda manda) ndikuzisunga m'malo oyenera.

Windover bog matumba kukumba
Windover Florida Bog Bodies Kukumba. © ️ Florida Historical Society

Kupeza kumeneku kumapereka chidziwitso chosanakhalepo pachikhalidwe cha osaka-osonkhanitsa omwe amakhala m'derali zaka pafupifupi 7,000 zapitazo, zaka zoposa 2,000 zapitazo Mapiramidi aku Egypt zinamangidwa. Kwa zaka makumi angapo atatulukira, mafupa ndi zinthu zomwe zapezeka pambali pawo zakhala zikuyang'aniridwa mosalekeza. Kafukufukuyu akuwonetsa chithunzi cha kukhalako kovuta koma kopindulitsa ku pre-Columbian Florida. Ngakhale amakhala azambiri pazomwe amatha kusaka ndi kusonkhanitsa, gululi silinayime, ndikuwonetsa kuti mavuto aliwonse omwe anali nawo anali ochepa poyerekeza ndi madera omwe amasankha kukhalamo.

Awo anali chitukuko chokondana kwambiri. Pafupifupi matupi onse a ana omwe adapezeka anali ndi zoseweretsa m'manja. Mayi wina wokalamba, mwina wazaka makumi asanu, amawoneka kuti anali ndi mafupa osweka angapo. Zovulala zidachitika zaka zingapo asanamwalire, zomwe zikuwonetsa kuti ngakhale anali wolumala, anthu ena akumudzimo adamusamalira ndikumuthandiza ngakhale atalephera kuthandizanso pantchitoyo.

Thupi lina, la mwana wazaka 15, lidawulula kuti anali nalo spina bifida, kubadwa koopsa komwe ma vertebrae samakula bwino limodzi mozungulira msana. Ngakhale anali ndi mafupa ambiri owonongeka, umboni ukusonyeza kuti amamukonda ndi kumusamalira moyo wake wonse. Pamene wina aganizira za zikhalidwe zakale (komanso zochepa pakadali pano) zikhalidwe zomwe zidasiya zofooka ndi zopunduka, zopezazi ndizodabwitsa.

Windover Zakale Zakale
Windover Zakale Zakale. © ️ Florida Historical Society

Zomwe zili m'mitembo, komanso zotsalira zina zomwe zidapezeka mgombelo, zikuwonetsa malo osiyanasiyana. Paleobotanists adapeza mitundu 30 yazomera zodyedwa komanso / kapena zochiritsira; Zipatso ndi zipatso zing'onozing'ono zinali zofunika kwambiri kuti anthu am'deralo azidya.

Mzimayi wina, mwina wazaka 35, adapezeka ndi msanganizo wa elderberry, nightshade, ndi holly pamalo pomwe m'mimba mwake mukadakhala, kutanthauza kuti amamwa mankhwala azachipatala kuti athetse matenda. Tsoka ilo, kuphatikiza sikunagwire ntchito, ndipo zilizonse zomwe mkaziyo adamupha. Chodabwitsa ndichakuti, mayi wachikulire anali amodzi mwamatupi ochepa omwe anali atafalikira m'malo momata, nkhope yake ikuyang'ana pansi. Akuluakulu amagwiritsidwanso ntchito pochiza matenda amtundu wazikhalidwe zina zaku America.

Kusiyananso kwina pakati pa anthu a Windover bog ndi anzawo aku Europe ndikuti palibe m'modzi wa a Floridians amene adamwalira mwankhanza. Amuna, akazi, ndi ana ali pakati pa mitembo. Atamwalira, pafupifupi theka la matembowo anali ochepera zaka 20, pomwe angapo anali azaka zopitilira 70.

Imeneyi inali imfa yochepa poyerekeza ndi malo komanso nthawi. Kupezeka kwa minofu yaubongo mu mitembo 91 kumatanthauza kuti adayikidwa m'manda atangomwalira, pasanathe maola 48. Asayansi akudziwa izi chifukwa, malinga ndi malo otentha komanso achinyezi aku Florida, ubongo ukadasungunuka m'matupi omwe sanaikidwe mwamsangamsanga.

Chodabwitsa ndichakuti, kuyesa kwa mafupa a DNA kukuwonetsa kuti mitemboyi ilibe ubale uliwonse ndi Amwenye Achimereka aposachedwa omwe amadziwika kuti amakhala m'derali. Pozindikira kuchepa kwamatekinoloje aposachedwa, pafupifupi theka la tsamba la Windover lidasungidwa ngati National Historic Landmark, kuti akatswiri ofukula mabwinja abwerere kumtengowo zaka 50 kapena 100 kuti akaone zotsalira zomwe sizinasokonezeke.

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