Mzinda wa Sunken wa Pavlopetri kapena Atlantis: Mzinda wazaka 5,000 wapezeka ku Greece

Mzinda wa Pavlopetri womwe wakhudzidwa ndi dzuwa wakhala ukudziwika ndi dzina lake kuyambira pomwe unapezeka mu 1962 ndipo wakhala ukugwirizanitsidwa ndi malingaliro osiyanasiyana okhudza momwe unayambira ndikugwira ntchito ngati kuthetsa.
Mzinda wa Sunken wa Pavlopetri kapena Atlantis: Mzinda wazaka 5,000 wapezeka ku Greece 1

Nkhani yoyamba yolembedwa ya mzinda wapansi pamadzi imakhulupirira kuti ndi mzinda wanthano wa Atlantis. Nkhani yochititsa chidwiyi inalembedwa koyamba ndi Plato mu 360 BC, akuufotokoza ngati mzinda wa pachilumba cha utopian wokhala ndi minda yachilengedwe, mitsinje, ndi akasupe omwe adamira pansi pa nyanja pambuyo pa kulephera kwa nkhondo ndi Atene.

Mzinda wa Sunken wa Pavlopetri kapena Atlantis: Mzinda wazaka 5,000 wapezeka ku Greece 2
Chithunzi cha mzinda wanthano wa Atlantis. © Shutterstock.com

Masiku ano, nyanja ndi nyanja zomwe zimaphimba gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu a Dziko Lapansi zimabisa zinsinsi zosawerengeka mu kuya kwake. Mamiliyoni a kusweka kwa zombo zosazindikirika ndi mizinda yomira ndi zina mwa zinsinsi zakale zomwe madzi ndi kupita kwa nthawi zidakwirira. M'lingaliro limeneli, magombe achi Greek awona chimodzi mwazodabwitsa kwambiri zomwe zapezedwa posachedwa.

Pavlopetri, mzinda wakale kwambiri pansi pamadzi padziko lapansi

Mzinda wa Sunken wa Pavlopetri kapena Atlantis: Mzinda wazaka 5,000 wapezeka ku Greece 3
Mabwinja a Pavlopetri ali pafupi ndi gombe, mamitala ochepa pansi pamadzi ku Vatika Bay kumwera kwa Greece. © Fund ya World Monuments

Kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 1960, mabwinja a doko la Pavlopetri, mzinda wachi Greek womwe unayambira mu Bronze Age, adapezeka. Kuyambira nthawi imeneyo, maphunziro angapo apangidwa kuti atulutse zinsinsi zomwe zimabisika pansi pa madzi. Akatswiri ena agwirizanitsa mzinda wakale wa Pavlopetri ndi mbiri yakale ya Atlantis.

Mzinda wa Sunken wa Pavlopetri kapena Atlantis: Mzinda wazaka 5,000 wapezeka ku Greece 4
Mapu a Pavlopetri asanamire © SpaceInTime

Nicholas Flemming, wochokera ku Oceanography Institute ku yunivesite ya Southampton, anali ndi udindo wopeza zotsalira za malowa mu 1962. Ili m'chigawo cha Peloponnese kum'mwera kwa Greece, pafupi ndi tauni yaing'ono yotchedwa Pavlopetri. Akuti mzindawu wakhala ukumira kwa zaka pafupifupi 5,000.

Chochititsa chidwi chinanso chokhudza mzinda wapansi pamadzi uwu ndikuti uli pamtunda wa mamita ochepa, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zosavuta kuphunzira. Akukhulupirira kuti ndi mzinda wakale kwambiri womwe wakonzedwa pansi pamadzi womwe umadziwika mpaka pano. Pazifukwa izi, idakhala gawo la midzi ina yodabwitsa pansi pamadzi, monga mzinda waku China wa Shi Cheng ndi mkangano wa Japan Mabwinja a m'madzi a Yonaguni.

Magulu osiyanasiyana amayesa kuthetsa zinsinsi

Flemming asanapeze mzinda wa Pavlopetri, katswiri wina wa sayansi ya nthaka, dzina lake Folkion Negris, ananena kuti anatha kuzindikira mzindawu mu 1904. Flemming ataupezanso malowa, mu 1968 anafufuzanso zimene anatulukirazi ndi gulu lina la akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale pansi pa madzi.

Pambuyo pake, mu 2009, University of Nottingham, motsogozedwa ndi a John C. Henderson, adayamba ntchito yazaka 5 yofufuza malowa. Idalandira thandizo kuchokera ku Greek Ministry of Culture and Tourism, motero ndikupanga Pavlopetri Project for Underwater Archaeology.

Kafukufuku wamabwinja ndiosangalatsa monga momwe amavuta, chifukwa zimaphatikizapo kupezanso malo ndi zinthu zakale komanso zosakhwima. Kuphatikiza apo, kutanthauzira kopangidwa ndi malowa kuyenera kupangidwa munjira ina komanso nthawi yosiyana ndi yathu. Pankhani ya Pavlopetri, zonsezi zimayenera kuchitika pansi pamadzi.

Ntchito yofukula zamabwinja yomwe idafufuzidwa ndikufufuza mzinda wapansi pamadzi wa Pavlopetri adagwiritsa ntchito zida ndi maluso apamwamba. Anaphatikiza zofukula zakale ndi maloboti apansi pamadzi ndi zithunzi zapamwamba kuti afufuze zam'nyanja. Mwanjira imeneyi, adatha kuukitsa mzinda womwe udatsala pang'ono kutha chifukwa chosowa chitetezo.

Mzinda wa Sunken wa Pavlopetri kapena Atlantis: Mzinda wazaka 5,000 wapezeka ku Greece 10
Kafukufuku amene adachitika adagwiritsa ntchito njira zakale zopangira zinthu zakale, maloboti apansi pamadzi, ndi zithunzi zapamwamba kuti ayang'ane kunyanja ndikubwezeretsa mzinda wakale. © Pavlopetri Pulojekiti Yofukula Zinthu Zakale M'madzi

Pavlopetri ndiye mzinda woyamba kutayika womwe ungafufuzidwe manambala mu 3D pogwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wa mapu a sonar. Mtundu wazithunzizo ndizapadera, kumanganso mzindawo mpaka pamlingo womwe sunayambe waonapo. Kuwonongeka kwamitundu itatu kudalola timuyi kukhala ndi lingaliro lolondola momwe malowo amawonekera zaka 5,000 zapitazo.

Kufufuza komwe kunapangidwa pansi pa nyanja kunalola kudziwika kwa zinthu zikwizikwi pamalo omwe amathandizira kumvetsetsa zomwe moyo wa tsiku ndi tsiku unali ku Pavlopetri kuyambira 3000 BC. Akatswiri amanena kuti mzindawu unamira cha m’ma 1100 BC chifukwa cha chivomezi, kukokoloka kwa nthaka, kukwera kwa nyanja kapenanso tsunami.

Mzinda wa Sunken wa Pavlopetri kapena Atlantis: Mzinda wazaka 5,000 wapezeka ku Greece 11
Ntchito yomanganso nyumba za Pavlopetri zomizidwa ndi nyanja pafupifupi 1100 BC. © ️ Pulogalamu ya Pavlopetri Underwater Archaeology

Pafupifupi zaka 5,000 zapitazo, moyo ku Pavlopetri unali wotukuka kwambiri ndipo mzindawu unali ndi zomangamanga zodabwitsa. Misewu, nyumba za nsanjika ziwiri, akachisi, manda ndi makina ovuta kuwongolera madzi, pakati pazinthu zina. Awa ndi malo okhawo omwe adalowetsedwa kale kwambiri kotero kuti titha kuwuwona ngati mzinda wokonzedweratu.

Ubale wa Pavlopetri ndi Atlantis

Mzinda wa Sunken wa Pavlopetri kapena Atlantis: Mzinda wazaka 5,000 wapezeka ku Greece 12
Plato ya Atlantis © Flickr / Fednan

Atlantis adatchulidwa koyamba zaka zopitilira 2,000 zapitazo ndi Plato, yemwe adati chilumba china chidamira zaka zikwi zapitazo.

“Kupyolera mu zivomezi zamphamvu ndi kusefukira kwa madzi, mu tsiku limodzi ndi usiku watsoka … [mtundu wonse] … unamezedwa ndi Dziko Lapansi, ndipo chisumbu cha Atlantis … chinazimiririka mu kuya kwa nyanja.” — Plato

Poganizira kuti madera ambiri a Atlantis ali mkati kapena pafupi ndi Mediterranean, zilumba monga Sardinia, Crete ndi Santorini, Sicily, Kupro ndi Malta, komanso momwe mzinda wa Pavlopetri udaliri wabwino, komanso zaka zamabwinja ake, ambiri anafika poganiza kuti imakhudzana ndi nkhani ya Plato's Atlantis.

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