Chinsinsi kuseri kwa 'Diso la Sahara' - Kapangidwe ka Richat

Diso la Sahara, kapangidwe ka Richat

Pakati pa mndandanda wa malo otentha kwambiri pa Dziko Lapansi, chipululu cha Sahara ku Mauritania, Africa ndithudi imawerengeka pamzerewu, kumene kutentha kumatha kufika madigiri 57.7 Celsius. Mphepo yamphamvu ndi yotentha imawononga malo ochulukirapo chaka chonse koma palinso malo osadziwika bwino m'chipululu; ndipo padziko lonse lapansi, limadziwika kuti 'Diso la Sahara.'

'Diso la Sahara' - Kapangidwe ka Richat

diso la Sahara
Diso la Sahara - mawonekedwe odabwitsa amiyala yopanda kanthu yomwe imatuluka kunyanja yamchenga m'chipululu cha Sahara.

Maonekedwe a Richat, kapena omwe amadziwika kuti 'Diso la Sahara', ndi malo a geologic - ngakhale akadali otsutsana - omwe ali ndi miyala yomwe isanakhalepo zamoyo padziko lapansi. Diso limafanana ndi buluu bulseye ndipo ili ku Western Sahara. Ambiri mwa akatswiri a sayansi ya nthaka amakhulupirira kuti kupangidwa kwa Diso kunayamba pamene dera lalikulu kwambiri la Pangea linayamba kusweka.

Kupezeka kwa 'Diso la Sahara'

Kwa zaka zambiri, ndi mafuko ochepa okha oyendayenda omwe ankadziwa za mapangidwe odabwitsawa. Idajambulidwa koyamba m'ma 1960 ndi a Ntchito Gemini akatswiri azakuthambo, omwe adazigwiritsa ntchito ngati chikhomo kuti azindikire momwe amayendera. Pambuyo pake, satellite ya Landsat idatenga zithunzi zina ndikupereka chidziwitso cha kukula, kutalika, komanso kukula kwake.

Poyamba akatswiri a sayansi ya nthaka ankakhulupirira kuti 'Diso la Sahara' linali chigwa chomwe chinapangidwa pamene chinthu chochokera mumlengalenga chinagunda padziko lapansi. Komabe, kafukufuku wautali wa miyala mkati mwa kapangidwe kake akuwonetsa kuti magwero ake adachokera ku Dziko Lapansi.

Zambiri zamapangidwe a 'Diso la Sahara'

Chinsinsi cha 'Diso la Sahara' - Chikhalidwe cha Richat 1
Diso Labuluu la Sahara limawoneka lodabwitsa chifukwa ndichizindikiro chachikulu m'chipululu chachikulu ichi.

'Diso la Sahara', kapena lomwe limadziwika kuti Richat Structure, ndi dome lofanana kwambiri, lozungulira pang'ono, lomwe lakokoloka kwambiri lomwe lili ndi mainchesi 25. Mwala wa sedimentary womwe umawonekera mu dome uwu umachokera ku zaka Kuchedwa Proterozoic mkatikati mwa dome kupita ku Ordovician sandstone kuzungulira m'mbali mwake. Kukokoloka kosiyanitsa kwa magawo osagonjetsedwa a quartzite kwadzetsa mpumulo waukulu wa ma cuestas ozungulira. Pakatikati pake pamakhala siliceous breccia yokuta dera lomwe lili pafupifupi 19 miles m'mimba mwake.

Zowonekera mkatikati mwa Richat Structure pali miyala yambiri yovuta komanso yotulutsa miyala. Mulinso miyala ya rhyolitic volcanic, gabbros, carbonatites ndi kimberlites. Miyala ya rhyolitic imakhala ndi matenthedwe a chiphalaphala komanso miyala yamagetsi yopanga ma hydrothermally yomwe ili mbali ya malo ophulika awiri, omwe amatanthauziridwa kuti ndi zotsalira ziwiri maars.

Malinga ndi mamapu akumunda ndi chidziwitso cha magetsi, miyala ya gabbroic imapanga mizere iwiri yozungulira. Chingwe chamkati chimakhala cha 20 mita m'lifupi ndipo chimakhala pafupifupi 3 kilomita kuchokera pakati pa Richat Structure. Chingwe chakunja chakumtunda chili pafupifupi mita 50 m'lifupi ndipo chimagona pafupifupi 7 mpaka 8 kilomita kuchokera pakati pa nyumbayi.

Makapu makumi atatu mphambu awiri a carbonatite ndi ma sill adapangidwa mkati mwa Richat Structure. Madikowa nthawi zambiri amakhala pafupifupi 300 mita kutalika ndipo amakhala 1 mpaka 4 mita mulifupi. Amakhala ndi ma carbonatite akulu omwe alibe ma vesicles. Miyala ya carbonatite idanenedwa kuti idakhazikika pakati pa 94 ​​ndi 104 miliyoni zaka zapitazo.

Chinsinsi chakuchokera kwa 'Diso la Sahara'

The Richat Structure idafotokozedwa koyamba pakati pa 1930s ndi 1940s, monga Richât Crater kapena Richât buttonhole. Mu 1948, Richard-Molard adaziwona ngati zotsatira za a mankhwala a laccolithic. Pambuyo pake chiyambi chake chinaganiziridwa mwachidule ngati mawonekedwe okhudzidwa. Koma kafukufuku wapafupi pakati pa 1950 ndi 1960 adawonetsa kuti idapangidwa ndi njira zapadziko lapansi.

Komabe, pambuyo pa maphunziro ochulukirapo komanso ma labotale kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1960, palibe umboni wodalirika womwe wapezeka. mantha metamorphism kapena mtundu uliwonse wa mapindikidwe osonyeza kuti ali ndi chilengedwe chambiri kunja kwa dziko kukhudza.

Ngakhale coesite, mtundu wa silicon dioxide womwe umawonedwa ngati chisonyezo cha kusokonekera kwamphamvu, idanenedwa kuti idapezeka pamiyala yamiyala yomwe idatengedwa kuchokera ku Richat Structure, kuwunikiranso kwamiyala yamiyala kunatsimikizira kuti barite sanadziwike kuti ndi coesite.

Ntchito yopangira zibwenzi idachitika m'ma 1990. Kafukufuku watsopano wa mapangidwe a Richat Structure ndi Matton et Al kuchokera ku 2005 mpaka 2008 adatsimikizira kuti sizomwe zimakhudzidwa.

Kafukufuku wowerengeka wa 2011 pa Richat megabreccias adatsimikiza kuti ma carbonate mkati mwa megabreccias olemera a silika adapangidwa ndi madzi otentha otentha, ndikuti mawonekedwe ake amafunika chitetezo chapadera ndikuwunikiranso komwe adachokera.

Chiphunzitso chokhutiritsa cha chiyambi cha 'Diso la Sahara'

Asayansi akadali ndi mafunso okhudza Diso la Sahara, koma akatswiri awiri ofufuza miyala yaku Canada ali ndi lingaliro logwira ntchito poyambira.

Iwo akuganiza kuti mapangidwe a Diso adayamba zaka zopitilira 100 miliyoni, pomwe Pangea wamkulu adang'ambika ndi ma tectonics omwe tsopano ndi Africa ndi South America anali akutalikirana.

Thanthwe losungunuka linakankhira kumtunda koma silinapite kutali, ndikupanga dome lamiyala, ngati chiphuphu chachikulu kwambiri. Izi zidapangitsanso mizere yolakwika ikuzungulira ndikudutsa Diso. Mwala wosungunuka udasunganso miyala yamwala pafupi ndi pakati pa Diso, yomwe idagwa ndikupanga thanthwe lapadera lotchedwa breccia.

Patadutsa zaka 100 miliyoni zapitazo, Diso linaphulika mwamphamvu. Izi zidagwetsa kuwoloka kwinakwake, ndipo kukokoloka kudachita ntchito yonse yopanga Diso la Sahara lomwe tikudziwa lero. Mphetezo ndizopangidwa ndi mitundu ingapo yamiyala yomwe imakokoloka mosiyanasiyana. Bwalo lozungulira pafupi pakati pa Diso ndi thanthwe lophulika lomwe limapangidwa panthawi yophulika ija.

'Diso la Sahara' - chizindikiro cha mlengalenga

diso la Sahara
Diso la Sahara, lomwe limadziwikanso kuti Richat structure, ndi gawo lozungulira lozungulira m'chipululu cha Western Sahara ku Mauritania chomwe chakopa chidwi kuyambira maulendo akale kwambiri chifukwa chimapanga ng'ombe yowoneka bwino m'chipululu chopanda kanthu. .

Akatswiri amakono amakonda Diso chifukwa gawo lalikulu la chipululu cha Sahara ndi nyanja yamchenga yosasweka. Diso labuluu ndi amodzi mwamagawo ochepa opumira monotony omwe amawoneka kuchokera mlengalenga, ndipo tsopano chakhala chofunikira kwambiri kwa iwo.

'Diso la Sahara' ndi malo abwino kupitako

Western Sahara ilibenso nyengo yozizira yomwe idalipo popanga Diso. Komabe, ndizotheka kukaona chipululu chouma, chamchenga chomwe Diso la Sahara limatcha nyumba - koma siulendo wapamwamba. Oyenda akuyenera kupeza mwayi wopeza visa yaku Mauritania ndikupeza wothandizila kwanuko.

Akavomerezedwa, alendo amalangizidwa kuti azikonzekera zakomweko. Amalonda ena amapereka maulendo okwera ndege kapena maulendo otentha a mpweya pa Diso, kupatsa alendo mawonekedwe a mbalame. Diso lili pafupi ndi tawuni ya Ouadane, yomwe ili kutali ndi nyumbayo, ndipo palinso hotelo mkati mwa Diso.

Siyani Mumakonda

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