Borgund: Lub zos Viking ploj tau pom nrog 45,000 cov khoom cuav zais hauv qab daus

Viking

Xyoo 1953, ib thaj av uas nyob ze ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj Borgund nyob rau sab hnub poob ntug dej hiav txwv ntawm Norway yuav raug tshem tawm, thiab ntau cov khib nyiab tau pom thaum lub sijhawm ua haujlwm. Hmoov zoo, qee tus neeg tuaj yeem txheeb xyuas cov "pob zeb" rau qhov nws tiag tiag - cov khoom los ntawm Norwegian Middle Ages.

Qhov chaw archaeological hauv Borgund tom qab Herteig tuaj txog, 1954
Daim duab no qhia txog kev khawb hauv xyoo 1954. Lub Borgund fjord tuaj yeem pom hauv keeb kwm yav dhau. Lub vev xaib tau khawb kuj tseem nyob rau xyoo 1960 thiab 1970s, nrog rau kev khawb me me tsis ntev los no. Nyob rau hauv tag nrho muaj 31 archaeological teb lub caij ntawm Borgund © Duab Credit: Asbjørn Herteig, 2019 Universitetsmuseet i Bergen / CC BY-SA 4.0

Ib qho kev khawb tau ua tiav lub caij ntuj sov tom ntej. Archaeologists unearthed ib tug loj tus naj npawb ntawm artifacts. Feem ntau ntawm lawv tau muab tso rau hauv qab daus archive. Tom qab ntawd, tsis muaj ntau ntau transpiled.

Tam sim no, qee xyoo kaum xyoo tom qab, cov kws tshaj lij tau pib ua haujlwm tag nrho ntawm kev tshuaj xyuas 45,000 yam khoom uas tau khaws cia rau hauv lub hom phiaj ntawm kev nkag siab txog ib txhiab xyoo Norwegian lub nroog nrog qhov tsis txaus ntseeg ntawm keeb kwm kev paub.

Medieval Borgund tau hais nyob rau hauv ob peb qhov chaw sau, qhov twg nws raug xa mus rau ib qho ntawm “cov nroog me” (smaa kapstader) hauv Norway.

Xibfwb Gitte Hansen, kws tshawb fawb keeb kwm ntawm University Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Bergen, tsis ntev los no tau muab kev xam phaj rau Science Norway nyob rau hauv uas nws tau tham txog dab tsi cov kws tshawb fawb tau tshawb pom txog Borgund txog tam sim no.

Danish archaeologist Gitte Hansen tau piav qhia tias kev tsim kho ntawm Borgund feem ntau yuav tshwm sim ntawm qee lub sijhawm thaum lub hnub nyoog Viking.

"Zaj dab neeg ntawm Borgund pib qee zaum hauv 900s lossis 1000s. Ceev ceev rau pem hauv ntej ob peb puas xyoo thiab qhov no yog lub nroog loj tshaj plaws raws ntug dej hiav txwv ntawm Norway ntawm Trondheim thiab Bergen. Kev ua si hauv Borgund tej zaum yuav yog nws qhov dav tshaj plaws nyob rau xyoo pua 13th. Xyoo 1349, Kev Tuag Dub tuaj rau Norway. Ces huab cua txias dua. Txog rau thaum xaus ntawm lub xyoo pua 14th, lub nroog Borgund maj mam ploj mus los ntawm keeb kwm. Thaum kawg, nws ploj mus thiab tsis nco qab lawm. " - Science Norway tshaj tawm.

Tus xibfwb Hansen tam sim no tab tom tshawb fawb cov khoom qub nrog kev koom tes nrog cov kws tshawb fawb los ntawm lub teb chaws Yelemees, Finland, Iceland, thiab Tebchaws Meskas. Txoj haujlwm yav dhau los tau txais kev txhawb nqa nyiaj txiag los ntawm Pawg Saib Xyuas Kev Tshawb Fawb ntawm Norway thiab kev koom tes los ntawm ntau lub koom haum tshawb fawb hauv Norway.

Cov kws tshawb fawb tshwj xeeb hauv ntau qhov chaw, xws li textiles thiab cov lus Norse qub, tau raug coj los ua ib pab neeg. Cov kws tshawb fawb muaj peev xwm tau txais kev paub txog cov khaub ncaws hnav thaum lub sijhawm Viking Age los ntawm kev tshuaj xyuas cov ntaub ntawv uas tau pom hauv Borgund.

Lub tsev khaws puav pheej hauv qab daus muaj cov tub rau khoom rau cov tub rau khoom nrog cov seem ntawm textiles los ntawm kab tias ib txhiab xyoo dhau los. Lawv tuaj yeem qhia peb ntxiv txog cov khaub ncaws zoo li cas cov neeg hauv Norway hnav thaum lub sijhawm Viking Age thiab Hnub Nyoog Nruab Nrab.
Lub tsev khaws puav pheej hauv qab daus muaj cov tub rau khoom rau cov tub rau khoom nrog cov seem ntawm textiles los ntawm kab tias ib txhiab xyoo dhau los. Lawv tuaj yeem qhia peb ntxiv txog cov khaub ncaws zoo li cas cov neeg hauv Norway hnav thaum lub sijhawm Viking Age thiab Hnub Nyoog Nruab Nrab. © Duab Credit: Bård Amundsen | sciencenorway.nr

Cov khau khau, daim ntaub, slag (cov khoom los ntawm smelting ores thiab siv hlau), thiab potsherds yog cov khoom qub uas tsis muaj nqi nrhiav tau los ntawm pab pawg archaeology coj los ntawm Asbjørn Herteig thaum lub sij hawm excavations ntawm lub Viking lub zos Borgund ntev ploj.

Raws li tus xibfwb Hansen, cov khoom qub no tuaj yeem qhia ntau yam txog Vikings nyob rau ib hnub twg. Ib tug tseem ceeb ntawm Viking artifacts tseem zoo khaws cia thiab tej zaum yuav raug tshuaj xyuas kom meej. Hauv qab daus yuav muaj ntau txog 250 daim ntawm cov khaub ncaws thiab lwm yam ntaub.

"Ib lub tsho Borgund los ntawm lub hnub nyoog Viking tuaj yeem ua los ntawm ntau li yim yam sib txawv," Xibfwb Hansen piav qhia.

raws li Science Norway, nyob rau hauv qhov seem ntawm Borgund nyob rau hauv qab daus nyob rau hauv lub tsev cia puav pheej nyob rau hauv Bergen, cov kws tshawb fawb tam sim no nrhiav pom ceramics los ntawm yuav luag tag nrho cov teb chaws Europe. "Peb pom ntau yam lus Askiv, German thiab Fabkis cov tais diav," Hansen hais tias.

Cov neeg uas nyob hauv Borgund tej zaum yuav nyob hauv Lübeck, Paris, thiab London. Los ntawm no lawv yuav tau coj rov qab kos duab, suab paj nruag, thiab tej zaum kev tshoov siab rau cov khaub ncaws. Lub nroog ntawm Borgund yog tej zaum ntawm nws cov nplua nuj tshaj plaws nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua 13th.

"Lub lauj kaub thiab cov tais diav ua los ntawm ceramic thiab soapstone los ntawm Borgund yog qhov zoo siab pom tias peb muaj cov kws tshawb fawb hauv cov txheej txheem tshwj xeeb hauv qhov no," Hansen hais tias. "Peb cia siab tias yuav kawm qee yam txog kev noj zaub mov thiab kev coj noj coj ua ntawm no nyob sab nrauv ntawm Tebchaws Europe los ntawm kev saib seb tib neeg ua li cas thiab noj zaub mov thiab dej haus."

Kev kawm txog cov khoom qub Borgund twb tau ua tiav thiab xibfwb Hanse hais "Muaj ntau qhov qhia tau tias cov neeg ntawm no tau muaj kev sib cuag ncaj qha lossis ncaj qha nrog tib neeg thoob plaws ntau qhov chaw hauv Tebchaws Europe."

Tsis tas li ntawd, cov kws tshawb fawb tau pom cov pov thawj tias cov neeg nyob hauv lub zos Viking ntawm Borgund nyiam noj ntses. Rau cov neeg ntawm Borgund, nuv ntses yog qhov tseem ceeb.

Nws tseem tsis tau paub, txawm hais tias lawv thauj ntses mus rau German Hanseatic League hauv Bergen lossis pauv ntses nrog lwm thaj chaw ntawm Norway thiab Europe.

Cov kws tshawb fawb pom “ntau cov cuab yeej nuv ntses. Qhov no qhia tias cov neeg hauv Borgund lawv tus kheej yuav tau nuv ntses ntau. Kev nuv ntses nplua nuj nyob hauv Borgundfjord tej zaum yuav yog qhov tseem ceeb heev rau lawv, " Hansen hais tias.

Peb tej zaum yuav infer los ntawm cov hlau seem uas tsis nco qab lub zos nyob rau hauv Western Norway muaj lub hauv paus muaj zog. Tej zaum cov kws ntaus hlau ua lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv lub nroog no?

Thiab yog vim li cas Asbjørn Herteig thiab nws cov neeg koom tes nrhiav tau ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm cov ntaub ntawv pov tseg los ntawm cov kws tsim khau? Txog li 340 cov khau tawg tuaj yeem muab cov ntaub ntawv ntawm cov khau style thiab cov hom tawv nyiam siv rau khau thoob plaws Viking Age.

Qee tus neeg ua haujlwm archaeological hauv Borgund, 1961 Duab
Qee tus neeg ua haujlwm archaeological hauv Borgund © Duab Source: 2019 Universitetsmuseet i Bergen / CC BY-SA 4.0

Peb qhov kev paub ntawm Borgund los ntawm cov kws sau keeb kwm sau ntawv yog qhov txwv. Vim li no, lub luag haujlwm ntawm archaeologists thiab lwm tus neeg tshawb fawb hauv qhov project tshwj xeeb no tseem ceeb heev.

Txawm li cas los xij, muaj ib qho tseem ceeb hauv keeb kwm. Nws yog tsab cai lij choj los ntawm 1384 uas ua rau cov neeg ua liaj ua teb ntawm Sunnmøre yuav lawv cov khoom hauv khw hauv nroog Borgund (kaupstaden Borgund).

"Qhov no yog qhov peb paub tias Borgund tau suav tias yog lub nroog thaum lub sijhawm," Xibfwb Hansen hais tias. "Qhov kev txiav txim no tseem tuaj yeem txhais tau tias Borgund tawm tsam kom mus ua lag luam nyob rau hauv xyoo tom qab Dub Tuag nyob rau nruab nrab ntawm lub xyoo pua 14th." Thiab ces lub nroog twb tsis nco qab lawm.

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